Valorisation of the single patch sky and sun
MACONSOL project
IEA 31



Valorisation of the one patch sky and sun simulator (in collaboration with the BBRI)


The sky and sun valorisation project was funded by the Walloon Government (DGTRE, Energy Division). It began on May 1, 2003 and finished on July 31, 2004.

Research objectives:

The sky and sun simulator, built with the CSTC, helps the architects to evaluate the daylighting quality of their project.
Research aimed to validate the results obtained and to present to the professionals the possibilities offered by the laboratory.

Four tasks were carried out:

Task 1 : Validation of the results obtained under the artificial sky:

  • From comparisons with simulation results carried out with validated softwares.
  • From comparisons with results obtained under other artificial skies or under real sky.
  • from results of other daylighting projects.

Task 2 : Work on materials

  • Modelizations of the walls: choice of scale models materials by taking into account various material characteristics (color, brightness, ...).
  • Development of a methodology for the constitution of a scale model material database.

Task 3 : Work on human aspects

  • Participation to the IEA Task 31, subtask A.
  • Study of the human response to the application of daylight systems and control strategies.
  • Study of the human behavior impact on building consumptions and on system performances.

Task 4 : Training of the architects and dissemination of results

  • Theoretical and practical trainings on the artificial sky utilization and on the interpretation o f results.
  • Dissemination of information by publishing papers and by the conception of a web site.

Research outcomes:

Publications :

Bodart M, Deneyer A, De Herde A, Wouters P, "The new Belgian single patch sky and sun simulator and its validation", Proceedings of the Lux Europa Conference, Berlin, September 2005.

Bodart M, Deneyer A, De Herde A, Wouters P, "Design of a new single patch sky and sun simulator", Lighting Research and Technology, 38 (1), 2006.




Research objective:

The project MACONSOL (control of lighting consumptions by the integration of the daylight) aims to quantify accurately the lighting consumptions when electric lighting management systems is linked to daylight availabilities. This consumption quantification is possible from measurements carried out in laboratory on scale models or from simplified methods.

The developped tool will calculate the lighting internal gains and the lighting annual consumptions that would be used in the future energy regulation and/or the thermal simulation programmes.

This project is financed by the Walloon Government, DGTRE, Energy division. It began on August 1, 2004 and will finish on July 31, 2006.

Valentine Gilbert ( is in charge of this project.


Participation to the International Energy Agency (Solar Heating and cooling programme)
task 31:Daylighting Buildings in the 21st century


Cette tâche a pour objectif principal de faire de l'éclairage naturel la solution typique et préférée pour éclairer les bâtiments du 21ième siècle en intégrant le comportement humain par rapport aux systèmes d'éclairage et d'ombrage.


This Task seeks to make daylighting the typical and preferred design solution for lighting buildings in the 21st century by integrating human response with the application of daylighting systems and shading and electric light control strategies. Two key issues, which require research to accomplish energy savings, have been identified as:

- The determination of occupant response towards the luminous and thermal environments in buildings using daylighting systems and daylight responsive controls.

- The integration of daylighting systems, electric lighting, and shading controls taking into account occupant response in order to optimise energy savings.

A third objective is to ensure transference of the results to building design professionals, building owners, and manufacturers.

The Task will focus on commercial buildings, both new and existing, including office, retail, and institutional buildings such as schools. To find a solution to these issues, fifteen countries and 24 institutions in Europe, North America, Asia, Australia and New Zealand are collaborating in worldwide research.

The IEA 31 task is divided into 4 subtasks:

A - User Perspectives and Requirements
B - Integration and optimization of Systems
C - Design tools
D - Performance Tracking Network and Design Support


Participation of "Architecture et Climat"

The research team "Architecture et Climat" chose to participate to the subtask A which is comprised of the following projects:

Project A1: Literature survey
Project A2: Methods for the assessment of visual comfort
Project A3: Application of user assessment methods for visual comfort
Project A4: Modelling
Project A5: Guidance


Practical methods to assess visual and thermal indoor environment comfort systems. Few tools are available to help designers meet the need of building in daylit spaces.
Descriptions on daylighting requirements for inclusion in standards and codes
Rules of thumb for daylighting office spaces
Algorithms for computer software to predict user response for designing daylit environments and their lighting, and shading control systems .
Guidelines on the use of these algorithms in daylighting and energy simulation software.
The work resulting from Subtask A will directly support designers and manufacturers by improving their understanding of user perspectives or requirements. It will also support the goal of achieving the potential energy savings predicted by providing architects, designers, lighting professionals and energy simulation specialists with more reliable data, guidelines and tools. Governments, building code authorities, standards boards, and professional bodies will be able to update existing documents to further enhance building occupant well-being and comfort while at the same time contributing to a more sustainable future.


Outcomes from "Architecture et Climat"

The here-below listed reports present the results of the research realized in IEA 31.

- Survey on solar shading and electric lighting management system : results and analysis

- Survey on the office workers' interest in windows


Link to the IEA 31 internet site


 Architecture et Climat - Place du Levant, 1-1348 Louvain-La-Neuve