lbirf2105  2019-2020  Louvain-la-Neuve

Note from June 29, 2020
Although we do not yet know how long the social distancing related to the Covid-19 pandemic will last, and regardless of the changes that had to be made in the evaluation of the June 2020 session in relation to what is provided for in this learning unit description, new learnig unit evaluation methods may still be adopted by the teachers; details of these methods have been - or will be - communicated to the students by the teachers, as soon as possible.
6 credits
30.0 h + 52.5 h
Ponette Quentin;
Prerequisite: introductory course in forestry, ecology, plant physiology, systematic botany.
Supplementary courses: forest valuation and economics, wood science, forest mensuration, forest management, forest tour
Main themes
1. Main concepts: 
- context, tags and constraints: time, cost, types of ownerships and owners, stand and ecosystem stability, wood quality;
- evenaged monospecific stands: installation, education / stem formation, growth, regeneration;
- complex stands: conversion and transformation, selection system, treatment of irregular and / or mixed-species stands;
- dendrology: identification and ecology of the main tree species used for silviculture in temperate Europe;
- compared applied silvicultures: optimizing silvicultural prescriptions according to the species (biological and ecological characteristics, wood properties), eco-climatic conditions and techno-economic context (e.g. public forests, private forests.).

At the end of this learning unit, the student is able to :

1 a. Contribution de l'activité au référentiel AA (AA du programme)
M1.1, M1.2, M2.1, M2.2, M4.5, M4.6, M4.7, M6.1, M6.2, M6.5, M6.8
b. Formulation spécifique pour cette activité des AA du programme
At the end of this activity, the student is able to:
- identify the main forest tree species observed in temperate Europe, to determine their taxonomic position and know their ecology;
- carry out an ecological and techno-economic stand assessment; on this basis, to establish a detailed and argued silvicultural proposal and write it in the form of an expertise-type report;
- establish silvicultural prescriptions for monospecific even-aged stands, with species of contrasting characteristics and in diverse techno-economic contexts;
- describe complex stands, understand their dynamics and manage them using current management tools.

The contribution of this Teaching Unit to the development and command of the skills and learning outcomes of the programme(s) can be accessed at the end of this sheet, in the section entitled “Programmes/courses offering this Teaching Unit”.
a.     Table of contents
Part I - Principles
- silvicultural systems
- guidelines: socio-economic function; ecological function; multifunctionality; risk management
- integrated assessment of sites and stands: principles; forest site quality assessment; stand description and analysis; stand classification
Part II - Silvicultural interventions in evenaged stands
- silvicultural cycle and stages
- regeneration stage: objectives and timetable; installation vs qualification; adapting to species and environmental conditions; natural vs artificial regeneration
- thinning stage: modalities; definition of objectives and selection criteria; tools, guidelines and references; practice of thinnings
- early stand management: form pruning and artificial pruning
- regeneration methods: concepts; modes of action; typology of regeneration methods
Part III - Silviculture of complex stands
- description and assessment : components, stand typology
- functioning: basic principles; growth and canopy position; ingrowth and regeneration; stationarity
- management and stocking control: the de Liocourt model - advantages and limitations; selection system; control; adapting to species and environmental conditions
b.     Additional informations
This course is organized in the form of five interconnected modules.
- Module 1: lectures and seminars - 14 sessions of 2 hours on the establishment, management and transformation of forest stands of contrasting structures and species compositions;
- Module 2: excursions - three 1-day field trips devoted to the regeneration of stands, to the silvicultures of hardwoods and to the silvicultures of conifers, respectively;
- Module 3: tree marking - initiation to tree marking in irregular stands in a marteloscope;
- Module 4: project - integrated site quality - stand assessment, and silvicultural prescriptions;
- Module 5: dendrology - five 4-hour sessions and one half-day trip in an arboretum to identify and learn the ecological characteristics of the main species of gymnosperms and angiosperms used for silvicultural purposes in temperate Europe.
Teaching methods
- lectures including practical examples;
- seminars by stakeholders from the socio-professional sphere;
- mini-project focused on combined site-stand assessment, and related silvicultural prescriptions;
- training to tree marking in a marteloscope;
- practical field and laboratory work dedicated to the identification of tree species;
- reading and analysis of technical texts/manuals in groups of students;
- thematic field excursions on regeneration, as well as on hardwods and conifers silvicultures.
Evaluation methods
- written examination;
- oral examination on the identification, systematics and autecology of tree species;
- project report;
- critical analysis of technical texts.
Other information
This course can be given in English.
Online resources
Les supports de cours obligatoires (diapositives power point, documents de référence) sont mis à disposition de l'étudiant sur Moodle. En outre, le module 5 s'appuie sur un support web interactif consultable à l'adresse :
Pour en savoir plus, l'étudiant pourra consulter utilement les ouvrages de référence suivants :
- Balleux, P., Van Lerberghe, P. 2006. Guide technique pour des travaux forestiers de qualité. Ministère de la Région Wallonne, DGRNE-DNF, Fiche technique n°17. Namur, Belgique, 373 p.
- Bastien, Y., Gauberville, C. (coord.). 2011. Vocabulaire forestier. Ecologie, gestion et conservation des espaces boisés. IDF, Paris, France, 554 p. + annexes
- Nyland, R.D. 2002. Silviculture : concepts and applications. 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill, USA, 682 p.
- Schütz, J.-P. 1990. Sylviculture 1. Principes d'éducation des forêts. Presses polytechniques et universitaires romandes, Lausanne, Suisse, 243 p.
- Schütz, J.-P., 1997. Sylviculture 2. La gestion des forêts irrégulières et mélangées. Presses polytechniques et universitaires romandes, Lausanne, Suisse, 178 p.
- Smith, D.M., Larson, B.C., Kelty, M.J., Ashton, P.M.S. 1996.The practice of silviculture: applied forest ecology. 9th ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York, USA
Faculty or entity

Programmes / formations proposant cette unité d'enseignement (UE)

Title of the programme
Master [120] in Forests and Natural Areas Engineering