Objective This study aimed to describe disparities and temporal trends in the level of perceived patient–provider communication quality (PPPCQ) in the United States, and to identify sociodemographic and health-related factors associated with elements of PPPCQ. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was conducted using nationally-representative data from the 2011–2013 iterations of the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). Descriptive statistics, multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine associations. Results PPPCQ scores, the composite measure of patients’ ratings of communication quality, were positive overall (82.8, 95% CI: 82.1–83.5). However, less than half (42–46%) of respondents perceived that providers always addressed their feelings, spent enough time with them, or helped with feelings of uncertainty about their health. Older adults and those with a regular provider consistently had higher PPPCQ scores, while those with poorer perceived general health were consistently less likely to have positive perceptions of their providers' communication behaviors. Conclusions Disparities in PPPCQ can be attributed to patients’ age, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, employment status, income, healthcare access and general health. Practice implications These findings may inform educational and policy efforts which aim to improve patient–provider communication, enhance the quality of care, and reduce health disparities.