Objective Kidney transplant recipients face many self-management challenges. We aimed to identify profiles of attitudes towards self-management support (SMS) shortly after kidney transplantation. Methods Profiles were generated using Q-methodology: In face-to-face interviews participants rank-ordered opinion statements on aspects of SMS according to agreement. Socio-demographic and medical characteristics were assessed using a questionnaire. By-person factor analysis was used to analyze the rankings and qualitative data was used to support choice of profiles. The resulting factors represent clusters of patients with similar attitudes towards SMS. Results Forty-three patients (mean age = 56, 77% male) participated. Four profiles were identified: (A) transplant-focused and obedient, (B) holistic and collaborative, (C) life-focused and self-determined, and (D) was bipolar. The positive pole (D+) minimalizing and disengaged and the negative pole (D-) coping-focused and needy represent opposing viewpoints within the same profile. Socio-demographic and medical characteristics were not related to profile membership. Discussion Each profile represents a specific attitude on post-transplant life, responsibility for health and decision-making, SMS needs, and preferences for SMS. Practical implications Patients vary in their attitude, needs and preferences for SMS indicating the necessity of providing personalized support after kidney transplantation. Health professionals should explore patients’ SMS needs and adapt support accordingly.